PIVUS - measurements at 75 years
For measurements PIVUS 75 as pdf, click here
1. Endothelial function. Two different tests of endothelium-dependent vasodilation will be performed:
a. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery using ultrasound.
b. Change in the reflected pulse waves obtained by aplanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) following sc given terbutaline.
2. Arterial compliance. Three different tests of arterial compliance will be performed:
a. Distensibility of the carotid artery evaluated by ultrasound.
b. The stroke volume/pulse pressure ratio (SV/PP) evaluated by echocardiography.
c. The Augmentation index (AIx) evaluated by pulse wave analysis.
3. Echocardiography. A standard echocardiography with Doppler examination will be performed to evaluate LV geometry, systolic and diastolic function.
Variables collected: LVEDD, IVS, PW, LV mass, SI, CI, EF, IVRT, E/A ratio, ejection time, myocardial performance index (MPI).
4. Blood pressure will be measured by sphygmomanometer in the arm. Blood pressure will also be measured in the ankles for calculation of the ABI
5. Anthropometry. Height, weight, waist, hip and sagital
6. ECGwill be taken as a conventional 12 lead ECG and subjected to Minnesota coding.
7. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries will performed for determination of IMT and plaque occurrence and grey scale analysis.
In addition, the femoral arteries will be investigated in the same manner and intima and media will be investigated separately in the carotid arteries by a 25 MHz probe.
8. Lung function tests will be performed: Vital capacity, FEV1 and PEF will be recorded.
9. Cardiac MRI will be performed in the 300 subjects measured at age 70.From this, information is available regarding late enhancement (myocardial scars), LV mass, EF, AVPD.
10. Whole body MR angiography will be performed in the 300 subjects measured at age 70.In this examination there is information on atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, the aorta, the renal arteries, the femoral part of the leg as well as the lower leg. A composite score for these vascular segments have been calculated.
11. Abdominal fat MR will be performed in all subjects. A MRI scan will be performed of the abdomen for calculations of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral fat volume (VAT).
12. Serum /plasma sampling. A number of serum/plasma samples will be collected and placed in freezers for later analysis.
Routine haematology, lipids and fasting blood glucose will be rapidly analysed for feed-back to the subjects.
13. Self-reported history of diseases and medication, as well as a number of other items regarding life-style, such as exercise, smoking, alcohol intake, education, social network, number of teeth etc.
14. Cognition test. Three different test for cognition will be applied: MMSE, TMT and ?
15. Brain MRI will be conducted in the total cohort for measurements of hippocampus volume, lucunar infarcts, bleedings, leukaryosis and peripheral brain infarcts.
16. Carotid artery MRI will be conducted in the total cohort for measurements of carotid wall volume, plaque composition and contrast enhancement for detection of neovascularisation and inflammation.
17. Ultrasound of abdominal aorta will be performed for screening of aortic aneurysms.